WOW2 is now a four-times-a-month sister blog to This Week in the War on Women. This edition covers trailblazing women and events from October 24 through 31.

The next WOW2 edition will post
on Saturday, November 6.

The purpose of WOW2 is to learn about and honor women of achievement, including many who’ve been ignored or marginalized in most of the history books, and to mark moments in women’s history. It also serves as a reference archive of women’s history. There are so many more phenomenal women than I ever dreamed of finding, and all too often their stories are almost unknown, even to feminists and scholars.

October is
Domestic Violence Awareness Month

and Gay & Lesbian History Month



will post shortly, so be sure to go there next, and
catch up on the latest dispatches from the frontlines.


Many thanks to libera nos, intrepid Assistant Editor of WOW2. Any remaining mistakes are either mine, or uncaught computer glitches in transferring the data from his emails to DK5. And thanks to wow2lib, WOW2’s Librarian Emeritus.

These trailblazers have a lot to teach us about persistence in the face of overwhelming odds. I hope you will find reclaiming our past as much of an inspiration as I do.


Trailblazing Women and Events in Our History

Note: All images and audios are below the person or event to which they refer



  • October 24, 1503 Isabella of Portugal born; upon her marriage to Charles V in 1526, she became Queen consort of Spain, Queen of the Romans, and Lady of the Netherlands. She was called ‘Empress of the Carnation’ after her husband introduced the flower to Spain as a token of his love for her. When Charles became Holy Roman Emperor in 1530, she became Holy Roman Empress and Queen consort of Italy. Charles, who spent a quarter of his reign as Holy Roman Emperor on the road, appointed her regent and governor of Spain during his frequent absences to attend to the administration of his other kingdoms, and his military campaigns. She attended meetings of the governing councils and consulted with the ministers. As she gained experience, she made her own decisions rather than just accepting the recommendations presented to her. The Emperor considered her deliberations “very prudent and well thought out.” She based her decisions on the common good, and organized the defense of the coasts and routes to North Africa against piracy, allowing the flow of precious metals that turned Spain into a chief source for the Imperial treasury. She negotiated the first marriage of her son, Philip, to Maria Manuela of Portugal, as well as the marriage of her daughter Maria to Maximilian II, who became Holy Roman Emperor, and her daughter Joanna to John Manuel, Prince of Portugal. During her regency, Spain was fairly prosperous, but after her death in 1539, the attempts by Charles to unify all his separate kingdoms into one united empire caused high inflation and heavy debt, and ended with the split of the Habsburgs into the Spanish line headed by their son, Philip II of Spain, and the Austrian Habsburgs, headed by Archduke Ferdinand, Charles’ brother, who had been serving as regent of Austria since 1521.


  • October 24, 1764 Dorothea von Schlegel, German novelist and translator, oldest daughter of Moses Mendelssohn, a leading figure of the German Enlightenment.  The novel Lucinde (1799), by poet Friedrich von Schlegel, created a scandal because it was viewed as an account of their affair, which began in 1797, and led her to divorce her Jewish husband (1799); she then became a Protestant in order to marry von Schlegel (1804). Her first novel, Florentin, had to be published anonymously in 1801.


  • October 24, 1788 Sarah Josepha Hale born, American author, editor, poet, and activist for women’s education; first American woman magazine editor, of the Ladies’ Magazine (1828-1836); she continued as editor after it was merged with Godey’s Ladies Book (1837-1877), which became the most influential magazine of its day, with a subscription that grew to over 150,000, in both the North and the South. As a writer, she is best known now for “Mary Had a Little Lamb,” but she was a pioneer in recording women’s achievements, compiling the Woman’s Record: or, Sketches of Distinguished Women, a 36-volume collection of profiles of women, tracing their influence through history on social organization and literature. In 1863, Hale sent a letter to President Lincoln, appealing “to have the day of our annual Thanksgiving made a National and fixed Union Festival.” She asked the president to “appeal to the Governors of all the States” to follow suit. Lincoln proclaimed November 26, 1863, as a national day of Thanksgiving.


  • October 24, 1830 Marianne North born, English botanist, botanical artist, and world traveler; notable for her plant and landscape paintings, her extensive foreign travels, her writings, her plant discoveries, and the creation of her gallery at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Marianne North – ‘Australian Parrot Flower’ painting

  • October 24, 1830 Belva Lockwood born, attorney; first woman admitted to practice law before Supreme Court (1879); she also ran for U.S. President in 1884 and 1888 as the Equal Rights Party candidate.


  • October 24, 1838 Annie Edson Taylor born, American schoolteacher and daredevil; in 1901, on her 63rd birthday, she became the first person to survive going over Niagara Falls in a barrel. (See 1901 entry)


  • October 24, 1840Eliza Pollock born, American archer who won two bronze medals in the 1904 Summer Olympics, and a gold medal as a member of the U.S. Olympic team. The oldest woman ever to win an Olympic Gold Medal, she was age 63 and 333 days when she competed.


  • October 24, 1868Alexandra David-Néel born, Belgian-French explorer, Buddhist, anarchist, and author of over 30 books about Eastern religion and her travels, including Magic and Mystery in Tibet. Disguised as a beggar, she became the first Western woman to enter the forbidden city of Lhasa. Her writings influenced ‘beat’ writers Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, as well as Alan Watts, who popularized Eastern philosophy and poetry in the West.


  • October 24, 1885Alice Perry born, first Irishwoman to graduate with a degree in engineering, with first class honours, in 1906; she had to return home when her father died, and served temporarily in his position as county surveyor for Galway City Council for several months, but was passed over when she applied for the permanent position; she remains the only woman to have been a County Surveyor in Ireland, so she moved to London and worked as a ‘Lady Factory Inspector’ (1908-1921); retired, became a Christian Scientist, moved to America, and wrote seven books of poetry.


  • October 24, 1891Brenda Ueland born, American journalist, editor, author, essayist, feminist, animal rights advocate, and teacher; noted for If You Want to Write: A Book about Art, Independence and Spirit (1938), which Carl Sandburg called “the best book ever written on how to write,” and is still in print. She was a freelance writer for a variety of magazines, from the Saturday Evening Post to Sportsman, and a staff writer for Liberty Magazine and the Minneapolis Times newspaper. From 1915 to 1917, she was an editor for Crowell Publishing, which was primarily publishing trade books and biographies at that time. Ueland also wrote scripts for radio shows, including Tell Me More, an advice call-in show, and Stories for Girl Heroes, a children’s program about notable women. She also taught creative writing classes. A collection of her work was published in 1992 under the name Strength to Your Sword Arm, featuring many of her articles and essays on topics like children, feminism, her life in Minneapolis, animals, health, and well-being. Ueland said she lived her life by two rules: to tell the truth, and never do anything she didn’t want to.


  • October 24, 1896Marjorie Joyner born, helped develop and manage more than 200 Madam C. J. Walker beauty schools by 1919, added professional status to the occupation, worked with Eleanor Roosevelt and other leaders in civil rights struggles.

  • October 24, 1901 – Desiring to secure her later years financially and avoid the poorhouse, on her 63rd birthday, Annie Edson Taylor became the first person to survive a trip over Niagara Falls in a barrel – the barrel was tested the previous day, going over the falls with a cat inside, who survived, bloodied and spitting mad. (See 1838 entry)


  • October 24, 1903Charlotte Perriand born, French architect and designer; a pioneer in modern design, l’esprit nouveau. In designing rooms and furniture, she preferred to use metals, especially steel, with glass, chrome, and leather. When she applied to work at Le Corbusier’s studio in 1927, she was rejected – “We don’t embroider cushions here.” But a month later, Le Corbusier visited the Salon d’Automne, where her design, Bar sous le toit (‘Bar under the roof’ – a recreation of a section of her attic apartment), was on display, and he offered her a job designing furniture. She was put in charge of the interiors work and promoting the studio’s designs through a series of exhibitions. But her contributions were credited to the Le Corbusier studio. After WWII, Perriand, an enthusiastic communist, want to turn her hand to low-cost furniture for mass production, and approached Le Corbusier, who wrote in response, “I do not think it would be interesting, now that you’re a mother … to oblige you to be present in the atelier,” he wrote. “On the other hand, I would be very happy if you could contribute to the practical structural aspects of the settings which are within your domain, that is to say the knack of a practical woman, talented and kind at the same time.” He would ultimately have Perriand develop the compact modular kitchens for the acclaimed Marseille project – and claim sole authorship of the result. Her dream of modern furniture for the masses was never fulfilled – only 170 of her chaise longues with curved tubular steel frames were sold in their first decade – today, they are reproduced under a license from Fondation Le Corbusier, and sold in upscale boutiques for over $5,000 USD (over €4,526 Euros).


  • October 24, 1914 Lakshmi Sahgal born, Indian Independence movement revolutionary, physician, and officer in the Indian National Army, dubbed “Captain Lakshmi” which was her rank when taken prisoner in Burma during WWII. She was Minister of Women’s Affairs during Azah Hind (Provisional Government of Free India 1943-1946). She was in Singapore in 1942 during its surrender to the Japanese, and aided wounded prisoners of war, many of them Indian nationalists. She was recruited by Subhas Chandra Bose into the Rani of Jhansi regiment, an all-women brigade of the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army). The INA marched with the Japanese army to Burma, but left them before the Battle of Imphal, where the Japanese suffered heavy casualties and were driven back by an allied army which included several divisions of Indian troops. Captain Lakshmi was arrested by the British, and held in Burma from May 1945 until March 1946, when she was sent to India, where the INA trials were increasing discontent and hastening the end of colonial rule. She returned to medical practice, but also became a prominent Communist politician and labour activist. During both the Partition of India (1947) and the Bangladesh Liberation War (1971), she organized aid and medical care for refugees; one of the founding members of the All India Democratic Women’s Association in 1981.


  • October 24, 1915 Letitia Woods Brown born, pioneer in researching and teaching African-American history, completed Ph.D. at Harvard in 1966, primary consultant for the Schlesinger Library’s Black Women Oral History Project, co-authored Washington from Banneker to Douglass 1791-1870.


  • October 24, 1915Marghanita Laski born, English journalist, science fiction critic, radio panelist on Any Questions?, biographer, novelist, and short-story writer. Noted for her novels Little Boy Lost and Tory Heaven, and for biographies of Jane Austen, George Eliot, and Rudyard Kipling; she was also a prolific contributor to the Oxford English Dictionary, having “carded” almost 250,000 quotations. Laski was a Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament activist, and an avowed atheist.


  • October 24, 1917Marie Foster born, American Civil Rights leader who helped register many African-American voters in Selma, Alabama, and also helped start the Dallas County Voters League; she personally was turned away from registering eight times before she succeeded, and then began teaching other black citizens how to pass the tests being used to bar them from registering. Only one person showed up for her first class, a 70- year-old man. She taught him how to write his name. Foster was one of the main organizers of the Selma to Montgomery marches in 1965; on ‘Bloody Sunday’ she was clubbed by a state trooper across the knees, but despite her injuries, two weeks later, she walked with the others the fifty miles to Montgomery in five days.


  • October 24, 1918Doreen Tovey born, English author and cat lover; she wrote over a dozen books about her fictionalized life with her husband, their Siamese cats, and other animals, which have sold over 150,000 copies. She was president of the RSPCA for North Somerset.


  • October 24, 1923Denise Levertov born, British-American poet, feminist, editor, and educator; her anti-Vietnam war poems include themes of destruction by greed, racism, and sexism in the 1970s; the poetry of her last years reflects her conversion to Catholicism in 1990. She won the Robert Frost Medal in 1990, and the Lannan Literary Award for Poetry in 1993. Her many collections of poetry include: O Taste and See; Breathing the Water; A Door in the Hive; and This Great Unknowing: Last Poems. She died at age 74 in 1997, after a three year battle with lymphoma.


  • October 24, 1927 Barbara Robinson born, American children’s author and poet; noted for Across from Indian Shore and The Herdmans series.


  • October 24, 1930 Elaine Feinstein born, English poet, novelist, author of radio plays and short stories, biographer, and translator; Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature since 1981, and recipient of the 1990 Cholmondeley Award for poetry.


  • October 24, 1931Sofia Gubaidulina born, Tatar-Russian composer and pianist; she composed several scores for documentary films, but in 1979, she was blacklisted for participation without approval in music festivals in the West. Noted for violin concerto Offertorium, and a T.S. Eliot tribute based on his Four Quartets.


  • October 24, 1937M. Rosaria Piomelli born, Italian architect, author, and academic; was a project architect for I.M. Pei and Partners (1971-1974), then opened her own firm in New York City in 1974; member of the American Institute of Architects; organized Women in the Design of the Environment,  a 1974 exhibition in New York. Piomelli became the first woman dean of an architectural school in the U.S. when she was appointed as dean of the CCNY School of Architecture in 1980.


  • October 24, 1941Merle Woo born in San Francisco, Chinese-Korean American academic, poet, and activist; a leading member of the socialist feminist group Radical Women and the Freedom Socialist Party. She taught Lesbian Literature and other classes in the late 1960s at San Francisco State University. In 1978, she began teaching at the UC Berkeley, a turbulent period during which she was fired, then rehired, and when her contract was not renewed, she won a union arbitration, and was reinstated in 1989. Later, she went back to teaching at San Francisco State. She was also part of the performance group Unbound Feet. Her essay “Letter to Ma” was included in the 1918 feminist anthology This Bridge Called My Back, and her poetry collection, Yellow Woman Speaks, was published in 1986.


  • October 24, 1950Gabriella Sica born, Italian poet and author; director of Prato pagano magazine since 1987.


  • October 24, 1950Maria Teschler-Nicola born, Austrian biologist, anthropologist, and ethnologist; noted for her work on a very rare genetic disorder in humans, tetrasomy 12p mosaicism; Director of the Department of Archaeological Biology and Anthropology of the Museum of Natural History of Vienna since 1998.


  • October 24, 1952Jane Fancher born, science fiction and fantasy author and artist who worked for Warp graphics in the 1980s, then did adaptations of C.J. Cherryh’s Morgaine series as graphic novels in collaboration with Cherryh, whom she married in 2014. Fancher is noted for her Groundties series and Dance of the Rings trilogy.


  • October 24, 1956Margaret Towner ordained as the first woman pastor of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.


  • October 24, 1958Nokugcine ‘Gcina’ Mhlophe born, South African storyteller, songwriter, and children’s author; she played a large role in keeping Black South African history alive and encouraging children to read.


  • October 24, 1959Ruth Perednik born in England, Israeli psychologist and a pioneer in the  study and treatment of the anxiety disorder Selective Mutism (SM), which causes a person who is normally capable of speech to go mute in specific situations or with specific people, which often begins in early childhood. She taught at the Yehuda Halevi Teacher’s Training College, Argentina (1986–1987), where she lectured on Educational Psychology, and worked for Jerusalem Psychological Services.


  • October 24, 1959Annette Vilhelmsen born, Danish politician and teacher; Minister for Social Affairs and Integration (2013-2014); Minister of Economic and Business Affairs (2012-2013); elected Leader of the Socialist People’s Party (2012-2014); Member of Parliament (2011-2015).


  • October 24, 1959 Michelle Lujan Grisham born, American Democratic politician; Governor of New Mexico since January, 2019; New Mexico Member of the U.S. House of Representatives (2013-2018); New Mexico Secretary of Health (2004-2007). She is pro-choice, favors a ban on assault rifles, opposes discrimination, and is an advocate for elder rights. She was a co-sponsor of the Student Loan Fairness Act, and has pushed for green and renewable legislation and regulation in New Mexico.


  • October 24, 1964Donna Hyer-Spencer born, American litigation attorney for New York City’s Administration for Children’s Services, and Democratic politician; member of the New York State Assembly (2007-2010); advocate for stronger penalties for child sex abusers, and successfully sponsored legislation to combat domestic violence, as well as a law to eliminate fees for Orders of Protection to remove financial roadblocks for victims, and was an advocate for education and healthcare, including opposing increases in state education tuition and Education budget cuts, and increasing income eligibility for prescription drug coverage for seniors; strong advocate on environmental issues, against hydro fracking within New York City’s watershed, and in favor of protection and public access to beaches and waterfronts.


  • October 24, 1971Zephyr Teachout born, American attorney, author, and Associate Professor of Law at Fordham University; on the advisory board for Let America Vote, working to end voter suppression, and was treasurer for Cynthia Nixon’s campaign for New York governor in 2018; has been a supporter of Bernie Sanders; author of Corruption in America: From Benjamin Franklin’s Snuff Box to Citizens United. In 2014, Teachout ran for the Democratic Party nomination for governor of New York, but lost to incumbent Andrew Cuomo. She received 34% of the primary vote.


  • October 24, 1975Women’s Day Off: 90% of Icelandic women take part in a national ‘Women’s Day Off’ – refusing to work to protest gaps in gender equality in Iceland. The country grinds to a halt, not only because women are missing from work, but because fathers are forced to stay home to take over childcare and household chores. Five years later, Vigdís Finnbogadóttir was elected as the first woman president of Iceland (1980-1996).


  • October 24, 1985South Africa ‘Purple Rain’: Hundreds of marchers, most of them women wearing t-shirts with the slogan “Troops Out,” reached the Cape Town city centre to protest troops being permanently stationed in townships, and refused to obey an order to disperse. Cape Town police used water cannons to spray purple-dyed water on them, setting off a riot.


  • October 24, 2017 – A U.S. federal appeals court overturned a lower court ruling that had blocked a pregnant undocumented teenage immigrant from getting an abortion. The Trump administration blocked the 17-year-old teen, known only as Jane Doe, from leaving a government-contracted facility to have the procedure. She came to the U.S. as an unaccompanied minor, and a few weeks ago she received a state judicial order allowing her to terminate her pregnancy without parental consent. The Trump administration had argued in court that it had not “put any obstacle in her path,” but was “refusing to facilitate an abortion.”


  • October 24, 2019 – In Bangladesh, sixteen former administrators, teachers, and pupils of the Sonagazi Senior Fazil Madrasa school were sentenced to death for the murder of Nusrat Jahan Rafi, a 19-year-old student who was burned to death in April 2019 after complaining that the school’s head teacher was sexually harassing her, and then refusing to withdraw the allegation. After she went to the police, a video was leaked showing a police chief registering her complaint but dismissing it as “not a big deal.” Nevertheless, Siraj ud-Daula was arrested and sent to jail. His family was pressuring Rafi’s family to drop the complaint. The prosecution alleged that ud-Daula issued orders from his jail cell to accomplices – including two local ruling Awami League party leaders and several seminary students – to kill the student if she did not retract her complaint. When Rafi arrived at the school to take an exam, a classmate named Poppy lured her to a rooftop, where five others – including three of her classmates – tied her hands and feet with a scarf before setting her on fire. The conspirators had hoped to pass off the incident as suicide by self immolation, but the plan fell through after flames burned through the scarf binding her and she was able to get down from the roof for help. Her brother recorded a video statement from her in the ambulance on a mobile phone. Over 80% of her body was burned, and she died five days later. The case prompted national outrage amid an alarming rise in sexual harassment cases, and Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina promised to prosecute all those involved. Despite the passage of a Suppression of Violence Against Women and Children Act in 2000, violence against women remains a substantial problem in the predominately Muslim country. After the killing, Bangladesh ordered 27,000 schools to set up committees to prevent sexual violence.


  • October 24, 2020 – Defying a government ban on public gatherings, thousands of people in cities across Poland marched for the third straight day in protests of over the ruling by Poland’s highest court that an existing law allowing the abortion of malformed fetuses was unconstitutional.  The constitutional court’s verdict is in line with policies espoused by Poland’s Roman Catholic episcopate and the governing rightwing Law and Justice (PiS) party, which had “reformed” the court in 2019, and introduced a disciplinary regime for high court judges that the European Court of Justice has ruled is a breach of European Union law. Many of the banners and signs carried by the protesters were marked with the red lightning symbol adopted by campaigners against the ban. Activists are calling for a national referendum on the issue, and announced they will block traffic nationwide on Monday, October 26. There are already fewer than 2,000 legal abortions a year in Poland, the vast majority of them because of malformed fetuses. However, Polish women’s groups estimate that as many as 200,000 procedures are performed illegally or abroad each year.




  • October 25, 1692Elisabeth Farnese born, her stepfather was Duke of Parma. She was raised in seclusion at the Palazzo della Pilotta, and took little interest in her lessons in Latin, French, German,  rhetoric, philosophy, geography, and history, but enjoyed her lessons in dance, painting, and music. She survived a virulent attack of smallpox, and enjoyed riding and hunting. There were no surviving male heirs to the Duchy of Parma, so whoever married her would be in line to succeed her uncle. She had several suitors, but she was married by proxy at the age of 22 to Philip V of Spain as his second wife. His beloved first wife had died at age 25 of tuberculosis. During the extended negotiations, the ambassador of Parma told the influential Princesse des Ursins that Elisabeth was a simple-minded woman interested in needlework, and would be easy to control and dominate, but told Elisabeth that the king wanted to be governed by others, so she must take control quickly, and the Spanish would like her very much if she could end the influence of the French party headed by the Princesse des Ursins.  Upon entrance to Spain, Elisabeth refused to part with her Italian retinue in exchange for a Spanish one as had originally been planned. The Princesse des Ursins, appointed as her Mistress of the Robes, hastened to meet Elisabeth before she met Philip V, having already heard from her spies that Elisabeth was not the simpleton she had been led to believe. Elisabeth greeted her, and they went to speak in private, where a violent argument could be heard by their attendants, and des Ursins was fired. She was arrested at Elisabeth’s command, and escorted over the border to France. When Philip met her the next day, he was enchanted with his new bride. She was soon dominant over Philip, and completely replaced the French party at court with her own retinue. Philip suffered periods of depression which left him unable to handle his duties, so she took over, and meetings with the ministers took place in the apartments they shared in the palace, even when the king was able to function, so she was present at all the government meetings from the start. In 1724, Philip abdicated in favor of his firstborn son from his previous marriage, Louis I, and retired to another palace. But Louis died from smallpox just a few months later, and Philip resumed the throne. Elisabeth was the de facto ruler of Spain from then until 1746 when Philip died, then went into exile when her stepson Ferdinand VI became king, but he died in 1759. She then briefly became regent for her son Charles III from 1759 until 1760. Elisabeth died at age 73 in 1766.


  • October 25, 1783Deborah Sampson receives an honorable discharge from the Continental Army after serving almost two years disguised as “Robert Shurtlieff.” When she was wounded, with a gash in her forehead from a sword, and a pistol ball in her left thigh, she extracted the pistol ball herself, and continued to serve, keeping her secret. Her true identity was finally discovered in Philadelphia, because she became ill during an epidemic, and lost consciousness when she was taken to a hospital. Sampson was the only woman to earn a full military pension for participation in the Revolutionary army.


  • October 25, 1800 Maria J. Jewsbury born, English writer poet and literary reviewer; when her mother died in 1819, Maria took over running the household and raising her younger siblings. In spite of her many duties, she began contributing poems to the Manchester Gazette in 1821. Noted for Phantasmagoria, or Sketches of Life and Literature; Letters to the Young; Lays for Leisure Hours; and The Three Histories. Her first book, Phantasmagoria, a mix of poetry and prose, was published in 1825, and attracted the attention of William Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy, with whom she became friends. Jewsbury became part of the literary scene, and was courted as a guest as much for her brilliant conversation as for her growing reputation as a writer. Making the acquaintance of Charles Wentworth Dilke, editor of the literary magazine The Athenaeum, led to her becoming a contributor in 1830. Against her father’s wishes, she married Reverend William Kew Fletcher in 1832, and she went with him to India. When they arrived at Sholapoor where Reverend Fletcher was assigned, it was in the midst of a drought and famine. He fell ill from overwork and anxiety, and she nursed him back to health. A medical certificate that his health could not bear the climate allowed them to leave, but she succumbed to cholera in Poona on October 4, 1833, and was buried there.


  • October 25, 1840Helen Blanchard born, American inventor who received 28 patents, including the Blanchard over-seaming machine (which both sewed and trimmed knitted fabrics), zigzag stitching, a pencil sharpener, and a machine to sew hats.


  • October 25, 1875Carolyn Sherwin Bailey born, American children’s author; books include Boys and Girls of Colonial Days, and Miss Hickory, which won the 1947 Newbery Medal.


  • October 25, 1884Maria Czaplicka born, Polish cultural anthropologist  known for her ethnography of Siberian shamanism; her studies were published in Aboriginal Siberia (1914); she also published a travelogue, My Siberian Year (1916); and a set of lectures as The Turks of Central Asia (1919); in 1916, she was the first woman lecturer in anthropology at Oxford University, and she received a Murchison Grant from the Royal Geographical Society in 1920, which wasn’t enough to offset the loss of income from her three-year fellowship at Oxford, which expired in 1919. Then a travelling fellowship she applied for didn’t come through, and she was only able to find a temporary teaching position. She poisoned herself in 1921, leaving all her papers to her colleague, Henry Usher Hall, who was on the 1914-1915 expedition to Siberia with her, and ornithologist Maud Doria Haviland. There was speculation about her relationship with Hall, especially since he was being married in the U.S. around the time of her suicide.

Maria Czaplicka and Henry Usher Hall

  • October 25, 1885 (OS)Sabina Spielrein born in Rostov-on-Don; Russian physician and one of the first women to be a psychoanalyst. She was first a patient after the sudden death of her sister Emma, then a student, of Jung, who took sexual advantage of her, but she nevertheless completed her studies, and became a psychoanalyst. She spoke three languages fluently, and was the founder of Moscow’s Psychoanalytic Clinic. In the late 1920s, Stalin shut down the clinic because psychoanalytic ideas were “too Jewish.” She returned to her home town and risked reprisals by seeing patients secretly. During Stalin’s Great Purge, her three brothers were executed in the Gulag, then her husband, and finally her parents. Spielrein was trapped, without family or powerful friends abroad to help get her out. In August 1942, Nazis invaders murdered her and her two daughters, in a massacre of 27,000 Jews in Rostov-on-Don.


  • October 25, 1892Margaret Ingels born, American mechanical engineer; first woman graduate in engineering at the University of Kentucky in 1916; worked on air conditioning, developing an “effective temperature” scale which incorporated humidity and air movement in the equation for comfort level.


  • October 25, 1892Nelle Shipman born, Canadian producer-director, actress, author-screenwriter, animal trainer, and pioneer in silent films; co-head of Canadian Photoplays Ltd.


  • October 25, 1894 Marjorie Phillips born, artist, embraced techniques of Van Gogh and Cezanne, introduced modern art to the Phillips Gallery as associate director of her husband’s Washington D.C. museum.

Self-Portrait (1940s) — by
Marjorie Phillips

  • October 25, 1900 – Chief Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti born, Nigerian women’s rights and political activist who founded the Abeokuta Women’s Union, which grew to 20,000 members, and launched successful campaigns against price controls which were hurting the women merchants of the Abeokuta markets, and against tax collection abuses. Ransome-Kuti also campaigned for Nigerian women’s right to vote. In the 1950s, she was one of the few women elected to the house of chiefs, serving as Oloye of the Yoruba people. Her three sons were also political activists. In 1978, Ransome-Kuti was thrown out of a third floor window by military personnel who invaded the compound of her son Fela. She went into a coma and died two months later. In 2012, the government proposed putting Ransome-Kuti’s picture on a N5000 note. Her grandson, Fela’s son Seun Kuti, a popular musician, said on television that his grandmother was murdered by the Federal Government, and asked the government to apologise to his family for her death before considering immortalizing her on the nation’s money. The government did not respond in spite of protest groups adding pressure on social media. The N5000 proposal was withdrawn.


  • October 25, 1903Katherine E. Byron born, American politician; the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress from Maryland (Democrat — 1941-1943) in a special election to replace her husband, Representative William D. Byron, after his death in an airplane crash; she served as town commissioner of Williamsport (1938-1940), and was chair of the Williamsport Red Cross flood disaster committee (1936).


  • October 25, 1912Minnie Pearl, born as Sarah Coley, American comedian who appeared at the Grand Ole Opry from 1940 to 1991; after battling breast cancer, she became a spokeswoman and benefactor for cancer research, founding the Minnie Pearl Cancer Foundation, and the Sarah Cannon (her married name) Cancer Research Institute.


  • October 25, 1921Marian Koshland born, American immunologist who discovered that the differences in amino acid composition of antibodies explains the efficiency and effectiveness with which they combat a huge range of foreign invaders. During WWII, her post-graduate studies included work in projects developing an Asiatic cholera vaccine, and combating transmission of airborne pathogens in army barracks. In 1970, she became a professor of Microbiology and Immunology, and then discovered the J chain (a B cell antibody subunit). In 1991, with colleagues, she identified a specialized intracellular pathway that transports antibodies into blood circulation, allowing for the multiplication of B cells essential in fighting infection.


  • October 25, 1923Beate Sirota Gordon born in Austria; her family emigrated to Japan in 1929, where her father was a professor at the Imperial Academy of Music; she came to America in 1939 as a student at Mills College in California, and was completely cut off from her family during WWII. In 1940 she was one of only 65 Caucasians fluent in Japanese in the U.S., and worked for the Foreign Broadcast Information Service of the FCC; becoming an American citizen in 1945. In December, 1945, she was the first civilian American woman to arrive in Japan, working for the Political Affairs staff, and reunited with her parents, who survived the war in an internment camp. She worked for the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) as a translator – in addition to Japanese, she was fluent in English, German, French, and Russian – and worked on the civil rights section of the new constitution for Japan, drafting the language on legal equality for Japanese women; one of only two women involved in this work – the other was economist Eleanor Hadley. After the war, she was a career counselor for Japanese students in New York City, including Yoko Ono, and then became an impresario, introducing Japanese performing artists to the NY public.


  • October 25, 1941Anne Tyler born, American novelist; notable for The Accidental Tourist, and Breathing Lessons, which won the 1989 Pulitzer Prize for Literature.


  • October 25, 1941Lynda Benglis born, American sculptor and visual artist, noted for wax paintings and poured latex sculptures.


  • October 25, 1942 Gloria Katz born, American screenwriter and film producer; co-writer of the screenplays for American Graffiti, and Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom.


  • October 25, 1952 – Dame Wendy Hall born, English computer scientist, mathematician, and academic; Regius Professor of Computer Science at the University of Southampton. Her team invented the Microcosm hypermedia system in 1984, before the World Wide Web was launched. She became the school’s first woman professor of engineering in 1994. She was Head of the School of Electronics and Computer Science (2002-2007.) Founding Director of the Web Science Research Initiative in 2006.


  • October 25, 1955 Gale Anne Hurd born, American film producer and screenwriter; founder of Pacific Western Productions and Valhalla Entertainment; produced the movies The Terminator, Aliens, The Abyss, Tremors and Dante’s Peak, and the TV series, The Walking Dead.


  • October 25, 1966 Zana Briski born, British photographer and documentary filmmaker; she directed Born into Brothels, 2004 winner of the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature; and is the founder of Kids with Cameras, a non-profit that teaches photography to marginalized children.


  • October 25, 1969 Samantha Bee born, Canadian-American comedian, writer, producer, political commentator, and host of Full Frontal with Samantha Bee since 2015.


  • October 25, 1971 Elif Shafak born, Turkish-British novelist, essayist, academic, women’s and minorities rights activist, and advocate for freedom of speech. She writes in English and Turkish, and is a founding member of the European Council on Foreign Relations. She was awarded the 1988 Rumi Prize for her first novel, Pinhan (The Hidden), and won the 2000 Turkish Writers’ Union Prize for Mahrem (The Gaze). Her first novel written in English was The Bastard of Istanbul (2006), in which she addresses the Armenian genocide, still denied by the Turkish government. She was charged with “insulting Turkishness” (Article 301 0f the Turkish Penal Code) for writing about the genocide. She has also addressed honor killings in her book Honour (2012).


  • October 25, 1972 Esther Duflo born in France, French-American economist; co-founder and director of the Abdul Latif Jamee Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), and professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Co-recipient of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences with Abhijit Banerjee and Michael Kremer for their research on alleviating global poverty. She is youngest person and the second woman to win the Economic Sciences Nobel Prize (after Elinor Ostrom won in 2009). Author of Poor Economics; Good Economics for Hard Times: Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems; and Le Développement Humain (Volumes 1 and 2).


  • October 25, 1975 Zadie Smith born, British novelist, essayist, and short story writer; noted for her novel White Teeth, winner of the 2000 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for Fiction, and a collection of essays, Feel Free (2018).


  • October 25, 1980 – The Hague International Child Abduction Convention concludes, after developing a multilateral treaty to provide for quick return of a child under age 16 abducted or detained by a non-custodial parent from one member country to another – as of 2021, a total of 101 countries are party to the treaty.


  • October 25, 1980 Victoria Francés born, Spanish illustrator, noted for her Dark Romanticism; her “Hekate” appears on the album entitled Luna for the German Pagan Folk band, Faun.

                           ‘Hekate’ —  Victoria Francés —  ‘Violin’

  • October 25, 2018 – Ethiopia’s parliament approved the appointment of senior diplomat Sahle-Work Zewde as the country’s first woman president. The president’s job is mostly ceremonial, with the prime minister holding executive power and acting as head of government. Still, the office of Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed hailed the selection of Sahle-Work, currently a United Nations under-secretary general and special representative of the secretary general to the African Union, as an “historic move.” “In a patriarchal society such as ours, the appointment of a female head of state not only sets the standard for the future but also normalizes women as decision-makers in public life,” said Fitsum Arega, Prime Minister Abiy’s chief of staff.


  • October 25, 2019 Over a million protesters took to the streets throughout Chile demanding the resignation of President Sebastián Piñera, who had declared a state of emergency, invoked Ley de Seguridad del Estado (a state security law) against dozens of detainees, and deployed Chilean Army forces to enforce order. There were numerous reports of women being strip searched without probable cause, as well as beatings, sexual abuse, and sexual assault. Many buildings, including the Violeta Parra Museum, were damaged in arson attacks as violence continued into 2020. Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International both expressed concern over the “excessive use of force” by the Carbineros, Chile’s national police force.


  • October 25, 2020 – The Police and Crime Committee of the London Assembly has presented to Lord Chancellor Robert Buckland a report that reveals rapes and other sexual offenses reported in London are less likely to result in convictions in 2020 than they were in 2015. According to figures gathered from the Metropolitan police and the Crown Prosecution Service, reports of rape and sexual offences in London increased by 25% between 2015 and 2020, but convictions dropped by almost a quarter, and the time it takes to bring charges of rape almost tripled. In 2015, one in nine reports of sexual offenses resulted in convictions, but in 2020, only one in 16 results in a guilty verdict. Unmesh Desai, chair of the Police and Crime Committee, said, “The toxic combination of significantly more reported sexual offences alongside a depressing failure to undertake successful prosecutions is a deeply worrying trend which leads victims to lose confidence in the criminal justice system.” Concerns have also been raised that the backlog of cases and a lack of preparedness in the courts will lead to more rape cases dropping out of the system, as further delays could impact victims’ confidence and willingness to pursue a prosecution. Rape cases take longer to charge than any other type of crime. In 2015-2016, it took on average 53 days for a charge to be brought, and by 2019-2020 that had increased to 145 days. In addition to lengthy charging times, victims will have to wait for longer for their cases to reach court. Over 500,000 cases were waiting to be heard in magistrates and crown courts in England after jury trials were suspended during the coronavirus lockdown, and courts have not yet been adequately equipped to reopen. The committee heard of one rape survivor who had already waited for over two years for their case to be heard and faced further delays due to a lack of perspex screens in the court. Unmesh Desai added, “If all other businesses and organisations across the country are ensuring that their premises are Covid-19 secure, it’s disgraceful that something as easy to fix as this is adding a further delay in bringing perpetrators to justice. Victims of rape and sexual offences already have so many hurdles to overcome without the added pressure of long delays to get their day in court.”




  • October 26, 1837Louisa Lee Schuyler born, established first U.S. training school for nurses in conjunction with Bellevue Hospital. In 1915 awarded the first honorary LL.D. degree given to a woman by Columbia University.


  • October 26, 1845Tennessee Celeste Claflin born, reformer and suffragist. She and her sister Victoria Woodhull were the first women to open a Wall Street brokerage firm.


  • October 26, 1874 Abby Aldrich Rockefeller born, American art patron and philanthropist, married to John D. Rockefeller Jr. From 1918 to 1936, she devoted much time to the YWCA in Providence, Rhode Island, and served on the YWCA’s National Board. Abby Rockefeller began collecting modern art in 1925, and was the driving force behind the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City, which initially opened in rental space on November 7, 1929, just nine days after the crash of Wall Street. She was an early customer of the influential Downtown Gallery. She also collected American folk art, and her collection became the basis of the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum in 1954. Beginning in 1927, she and her husband contributed to the restoration work being done in Colonial Williamsburg. In 1935, the museum opened the first major exhibition of paintings by Vincent Van Gogh, with excerpts from the artist’s letters. She bequeathed major works of modern art to the museum upon her death in 1948.


  • October 26, 1892Ida B. Wells publishes her pamphlet Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases, beginning to detail her extensive research into thousands of lynchings of black American men in the South.


  • October 26, 1894Florence Nagel born, British racehorse and Irish wolfhound trainer-breeder and feminist.  In 1920, when she trained her first racehorse, women were forced to employ a man to hold a Jockey Club trainer’s license on their behalf because women were excluded by the Jockey Club, but she challenged this, and became one of the first two U.K. women to licensed to train racehorses. She sponsored the Florence Nagle Girl Apprentices’ Handicap Race, first run in 1986 at Kempton Park., and left funds in her will to continue the race.


  • October 26, 1900Karin Boye born, Swedish poet and novelist; noted for her dystopian science fiction novel Kallocain.


  • October 26, 1902Beryl Markham born, British-Kenyon aviator, horse trainer-breeder, and writer; she holds the record as the first woman to fly solo east-to-west across the Atlantic; notable for her 1942 memoir, West with the Night.


  • October 26, 1902Henrietta Hill Swope born, American astronomer; discovered and studied thousands of variable stars, and measured the period-luminosity relation for Cepheid stars, which is used in calculating their distance from other celestial bodies. During WWII, she worked on LORAN navigation tables at the MIT Hydrographic Office. Swope worked at the Observatories of Carnegie Institution of Washington (1952-1968). She was honored with the Annie Jump Cannon Award in Astronomy in 1968.


  • October 26, 1911 Mahalia Jackson born, internationally acclaimed gospel singer, sang at the 1963 March on Washington.

  • October 26, 1920Sarah Lee Lippincott born, American astronomer; pioneer in determining the character if binary stars and the search for extrasolar planets.


  • October 26, 1935Gloria Conyers Hewitt born, African American mathematician; researches in Group Theory and Abstract Algebra; awarded the National Science Foundation postdoctoral Science Faculty Fellowship.


  • October 26, 1936Etelka Kenéz Heka born, Hungarian writer, poet, and singer, grew up in Yugoslavia, but has lived most of her life outside of Hungary, she has three citizenships, Hungarian, Austrian and Croatian, and now lives in Hódmezővásárhely in south-east Hungary. She has written about 90 books, but none of them have yet been translated into English. Winner of the 2015 Hódmezővásárhely Pro Urbe Award.


  • October 26, 1945 Nancy Davis Griffeth born, American computer scientist and academic; modeling biological systems in computational biology.


  • October 26, 1947Hillary Rodham Clinton born, attorney and Democratic politician; U.S. Secretary of State (2009-2013), Senator from New York (2001-2009), former First Lady (1993-2001). In 2016, she became the first woman U.S. presidential candidate nominated by a major party. Clinton won the popular vote, but didn’t carry the Electoral College.


  • October 26, 1956Rita Wilson born as Margarita Ibrahimoff, American film producer, actress, and singer-songwriter; supporter of cancer research and children’s charities, and the ONE Campaign to make women a priority at the 2015 UN Sustainable Development Summit; producer of My Big Fat Greek Wedding, Connie and Carla, and Mama Mia!


  • October 26, 1963Natalie Merchant born, American singer-songwriter; lead vocalist and primary songwriter for 10,000 Maniacs (1981-1993). She began a successful solo career  in 1993, and has released seven solo albums since, including Ophelia, Motherland, and The House Carpenter’s Daughter, her first album on her own label, Myth America Records. Merchant and Mark Ruffalo organized a concert in 2012 to protest gas and oil fracking in New York state, and a documentary about the show was released titled Dear Governor Cuomo. Merchant then directed Shelter: A Concert Film to Benefit Victims of Domestic Violence,  a short documentary in 2013. She has been an outspoken critic of Donald Trump, and sang her song “Motherland” at a 2017 anti-Trump protest outside Trump International Hotel in New York. She is also an active member of the Canadian group Artists Against Racism.  


  • October 26, 1977Marisha Pessl born, American novelist; noted for her novel, Special Topics in Calamity Physics.


  • October 26, 1978Eva Kaili born, Greek PASOK (socialist) politician; Member of the European Parliament for Greece since 2014; Member of the Hellenic Parliament for Thessaloniki I (2007-2012).


  • October 26, 2011 – The Minnesota Indian Women’s Sexual Assault Coalition  and Prostitution Research & Education released a study that looks at the trafficking of Indian women in Minnesota. “Native women are at exceptionally high risk for poverty and sexual violence, which are both elements in the trafficking of women,” report co-author Nicole Matthews, the executive director of the Minnesota Indian Women’s Sexual Assault Coalition, said. “The specific needs of Native women are not being met. Our goal was to assess the life circumstances of Native women in prostitution in Minnesota, a group of women not previously studied in research such as this.”


  • October 26, 2019 –A wide-ranging study of prostitution and the criminalization of the industry in the UK commissioned by the Home Office revealed a growing number of women have sold sex to survive after years of Tory austerity. To make matters worse, while it is not illegal in the UK to buy or sell sex from each other, sex workers banding together as a group is illegal. “The law is impossible to navigate because all of the stuff that makes me safer is illegal,” one woman told researchers. Niki Adams, spokesperson for the English Collective of Prostitutes (ECP), which presented evidence from its national network of sex workers who work both on the street and inside premises, said: “We have seen a massive increase in people coming to us for help because they have gone into prostitution for the first time and they need advice and support. A big proportion of women are single mothers . . . Universal Credit has a massive impact on people coming to us. Having to wait five weeks before you get any benefits under Universal Credit is forcing women back into prostitution or into starting prostitution for the first time. People have been left with no money. This is particularly devastating for mothers – how do you get the money for the next meal for your children?” Many of the women do not go to the police when they are the victims of violence because they fear going to prison.


  • October 26, 2020Women aboard a Qatar Airways flight bound for Sydney were taken off the plane during an unexplained long delay in Doha, the capital of Qatar, to be strip-searched as authorities tried to identify the mother of an infant found in Hamad International Airport’s toilets. Kim Mills was taken off the flight with eight other women, but she was the only one not strip-searched, because she is in her 60s and has grey hair. None of the women were told why they were being forced off the plane, and the eight were taken to ambulances where they were invasively examined by medical personnel to determine if they had recently given birth. Mills was returning to Australia from Italy, where she had been visiting with her daughter and new grandchild.  It is illegal to have sex outside marriage in Qatar. In the neighboring United Arab Emirates, unmarried migrant mothers are required to serve a jail sentence before they can leave the country. Healthcare workers in both countries are required to report any unmarried mothers for breaking the law, so many choose to give birth without any medical assistance. The passengers on the plane did not speak about what had occurred as a group until they were on a bus on the tarmac at Sydney airport, where they waited for 90 minutes to be driven to the terminal. One woman collected contact information to make a report to the Australian federal police. The following day, Australia’s foreign affairs minister, Marise Payne, said it was “a grossly, grossly disturbing, offensive, concerning set of events. It is not something that I have ever heard of occurring in my life, in any context. We have made our views very clear to Qatari authorities on this matter.”

                          Marise Payne — Qatar Airways



  • October 27, 1561Mary Sidney Herbert born, Countess of Pembroke; English poet, playwright, patron, and translator, first Englishwoman to achieve a major reputation for her poetry; sister of Philip Sidney; noted for her play, Antonius, and her lyric translation of Psalms 44-150, completing work begun by her brother. Her ‘Wilton Circle,’ a literary salon at her home, Wilton House, was a gathering place for some of the best poets and writers of the day, and she was a patron who sustained several promising poets early in their careers. She also had a chemistry laboratory, where she developed invisible ink and medicines. She died of smallpox in 1621, at age 59.


  • October 27, 1744Mary Moser born, British painter, one of two women founding members of the Royal Academy; noted for flower paintings.


  • October 27, 1765Nancy Storace born, English operatic soprano. The role of Susanna in Mozart’s Le nozze di Figaro was written for, and first performed by, Storace.


  • October 27, 1868Janet Scudder born Netta Deweze Schudder, American sculptor and painter; known for memorial sculptures, bas-relief portraits and ornamental garden fountains and sculptures.


  • October 27, 1885 Sigrid Hjertén born, major Swedish modernist painter. She was encouraged by her future husband, Isaac Grünewald, to go to Paris, where she studied with Matisse (1909-1911). Some of her paintings were first exhibited in a group show in Stockholm in 1912.  She and her family lived in Paris between 1920 and 1932, and made many excursions into the French countryside and to Italy for painting, but in the late 1920s, Hjertén began to experience the first symptoms of schizophrenia. She complained of loneliness when her husband was away, and feelings of abandonment. She was returning to Stockholm in 1932 when she collapsed, and was taken temporarily to the psychiatric hospital of Beckomberga. Over the next two years, she painted frenziedly, creating a painting a day, calling them the picture-book of her life. In 1934, she went with her family to southern Europe, continuing to paint. A joint exhibition with Grünewald stirred controversy, and many of the critics wrote scornful or deeply offensive reviews, some calling her work idiocy or horrors. But in 1936, she had a well-received solo exhibition at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, and she was honored as one of Sweden’s most original artists. Then Grünewald, who was frequently unfaithful, divorced her. Her illness escalated. By 1938, she was permanently hospitalized at Beckomberga, and painted very little. In 1948, she died after a botched lobotomy.

‘Ateljéinteriör’ — by Sigrid Hjertén 

  • October 27, 1908Lee Krasner born, American abstract expressionist painter; although overshadowed by her husband, Jackson Pollack, she is one of only four women artists to have a retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in Manhattan.

‘Right Bird Left’ (1965) — by Lee Krasner

  • October 27, 1910Margaret Hutchinson Rousseau born, American chemical engineer; designer of the first commercial penicillin production plant; first woman member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.


  • October 27, 1922Ruby Dee born, American actress, poet, playwright, and civil rights activist; the first to portray the character of Ruth in A Raisin in the Sun, both on stage and in the 1961 film; Grammy, Emmy, and Obie winner, and a National Medal ofArts, Kennedy Center Honors, and Screen Actors Guild LifeAchievement Award recipient. Dee was a member of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the NAACP, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Delta Sigma Theta sorority, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. She was also as an active member of the Harlem Writers Guild for over 40 years. In 1963, Dee emceed the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. She gave the eulogy at Malcolm X’s funeral in 1965. In 1970, she won the Frederick Douglass Award from the New York Urban League. In 1999, Dee was arrested at 1 Police Plaza, the headquarters of the New York Police Department, protesting the police shooting of Amadou Diallo.


  • October 27, 1924Bonnie Lou born as Mary Joan Kath, American pioneer in television and rock-n-roll. She was one of the first singers to successfully crossover from a country music to rock’n’roll, from a “yodeling sweetheart” to a rockabilly star. She was a co-host on the Paul Dixon Show (1955-1975), an early television syndicated weekday morning show. After Paul Dixon’s death, she hosted a weekend country music radio show.  She was inducted into the Rockabilly Hall of Fame.


  • October 27, 1925Monica Sims born, British radio producer for the BBC, became a strong advocate for quality in children’s television as BBC television’s head of Children’s Programmes (1967-1979); Controller of BBC Radio 4 (1978-1983); in 1985, she produced the report Women in BBC Management which showed the number of women in top jobs was virtually the same as it had been a decade before: 6 women compared with 159 men. The report concluded with 19 recommendations, including appointment of a women’s employment officer; more career guidance for both women and men; a review of the Appointments Board policy for senior posts; increasing the number of women attending Management Training Courses, and the introduction of women-only courses as an experiment. She also recommended part-time work, job sharing and other options for flexible working schedules.


  • October 27, 1931Nawal El Saadawi born, Egyptian feminist, physician, and author; founder and first president of the Arab Women’s Solidarity Association and co-founder of  Arab Association for Human Rights; her 1972 book, Woman and Sex (المرأة والجنس), which confronted aggression against women, including female circumcision, became a foundational text of second-wave feminism, especially in the Middle East and Africa; after Saadawi helped publish a feminist magazine in 1981 called Confrontation, she was imprisoned in September for her controversial and “dangerous” views, but released in November, after the assassination of  Anwar Sadat.


  • October 27, 1932Sylvia Plath born, American novelist, poet, and short story writer; best known for The Bell Jar; she committed suicide at age 30, and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in Poetry posthumously (1982) for The Collected Poems. Her other work includes Ariel, The Colossus, and Johnny Panic and the Bible of Dreams.


  • October 27, 1932Dolores Moore born, played in the infield for the Grand Rapids Chicks (1953-1954); her team won the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League Championship that year, the last season for the league.


  • October 27, 1939Suzy Covey born, scholar and musician who examined the intersections of comics, technology, and sound, working with computers in the early days of the internet. She died at age 67 in 2007.


  • October 27, 1940Maxine Hong Kingston born, Chinese-American author best known for The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts, her  autobiographical book about the Chinese-American woman’s experience, which won a National Book Critics Circle Award in 1976. Her book China Men won a National Book Award in 1981. She was honored with the 1998 John Dos Passos Prize, for body of work by an American author.


  • October 27, 1944J.A. Jance born as Judith Ann Jance, American mystery novelist and poet; noted for three series, which sometimes intersect: J.P. Beaumont, Joanna Brady and Ali Reynolds. Jance used her initials for her pen name because a publisher told her that disclosing her gender would be a liability for a book about a male detective.


  • October 27, 1950Fran Lebowitz born, American author and public speaker, known for her sardonic social commentary; her books include Metropolitan Life, Social Studies, and The Fran Lebowitiz Reader.


  • October 27, 1954Jan Duursema born, American comics artist who has worked for DC Comics, on Wonder Woman among other projects, and on publications for the Star Wars franchise.


  • October 27, 1955Deborah Bowen born American lawyer and Democratic politician; California Secretary of State (2007-2015); California State Senator (28th District 1998-2006); campaigned for a transparency bill which makes all of California’s bill information available on the internet; as Secretary of State, she commissioned a top-to-bottom review of California’s electronic voting systems, which revealed numerous weaknesses, for which she was awarded the Profile in Courage Award by the JFK Presidential Library.


  • October 27, 1966Hege Nerland born, Norwegian Socialist Left Party politician, deputy representative from Hemsedal to the Norwegian Parliament (2005-2006). She died in 2007. She had worked in organic farming, gaining organizational experience working with the Norwegian Farmers and Smallholders Union, and Via Campesina.


  • October 27, 1972Elissa, born as Elissar Zakaria Khoury to a Lebanese father and a Syrian mother; Lebanese recording artist, one of the best known and most popular singers in the Arab world. She is an outspoken advocate for women’s rights, and after being diagnosed early with breast cancer, she has campaigned for breast exams, breaking the taboo in the Middle East against talking about the disease, and urging that early detection will save lives. In 2018, she was an ambassador for a breast cancer awareness campaign in Lebanon’s capitol, Beirut.


  • October 27, 1992Emily Hagins born, American filmmaker who made her first movie at age 12 in her hometown of Austin, Texas – a zombie movie called Pathogen. Her other work includes the movies My Sucky Teen Romance, The Retelling, and Coin Heist, and the “First Kiss” episode of the V/H/S miniseries.


  • October 27, 2o19 – British police are investigating a crowdfunding page which sought to raise £10,000 for a hitman to kill Gina Miller. Miller is a UK anti-Brexit activist, and author of Rise: Life Lessons in Speaking Out, who went to court in 2017 to challenge the government’s right to implement Brexit without the approval of parliament, and succeeded in maintaining the principle that parliament is sovereign. A GoFundMe spokesman said: “This campaign has been removed. We are sorry it got through our otherwise robust procedures. We are particularly sorry for any distress this caused Gina Miller.” The page was taken down before any donations were made. Miller says she has been a target of death and rape threats ever since she began leading the campaign to ensure parliament had approval of any Brexit plan. Miller responded with thanks to her supporters: “We need to heal our nation and my view is that the only way of doing that is to remember true British values of tolerance, decency, reason, civic duty, common-sense, and above all else honesty and kindness.”


  • October 27, 2020Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, UN Women Executive Director declared that women continue to be under-represented in key decision-making in the battle against COVID-19, and the situation is even “worse for women in conflict areas.” She discussed the calls all over the world for inclusion and representation, “one of the main reasons why so many ordinary people are taking to the streets, organizing protests and raising their voices.” UN Secretary General António Guterres called again “for an immediate global ceasefire so that we could focus on our common enemy: the COVID-19 virus.” Guterres continued, “Women are on the front-line responding to the pandemic, keeping communities, economies, and societies running through their crucial work as care givers, nurses, teachers, and farmers, among other vital services. And they are peacebuilders at the local level and in communities around the world.  We must also recognize women who step up every day in conflict zones to help those at risk, mediating between groups to enable access by civilians and humanitarian aid, building trust, and strengthening social bonds.”

   Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka — António Guterres



  • October 28, 1599 – Saint Marie of the Incarnation born as Marie Guyart in Tours, France; founder of the Ursuline order in Canada, and the first school for girls in North America. She also wrote dictionaries and translations of the catechism in Montagnais, Algonquin, Huron, and Iroquois (but none have survived to the present day), and left an extensive account of life in the French colony from 1639 until 1671 in her letters and other writings.


  • October 28, 1816Malwida von Meysenbug born, German writer noted for Memories of an Idealist, the first volume of which she published anonymously in 1869. She was acquainted with Friedrich Nietzche and Richard Wagner. She broke with her family over her advocacy of the emancipation of women and approval of the German revolutions of 1848-1849, which aimed at unifying Germany under a more democratic form of government.  She lived first in a free community in Hamburg, then immigrated to England, making her living as a teacher and translator. She went to Italy in 1862 with a friend, remaining there due to poor health. In 1876, she invited Nietzche to Sorrento, where he began work on Human, All Too Human. In 1901 she was the first woman nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature after French historian Gabriel Monod submitted her name. In 1903, von Meysenbug died in Rome.


  • October 28, 1842Anna Dickinson born, orator, early champion of the rights of women and black Americans, supported interracial marriage, attacked the double standard of morality, first woman to speak before the U.S. Congress.


  • October 28, 1856Anna Klumpke born, American portrait and genre painter, known for her portraits of famous women; and author of a biography of painter Rosa Bonheur.

  ‘Portrait of Rose Bonheur’ — by Anna Klumpke 

  • October 28, 1856Carolina Maria Benedicks-Bruce born, Swedish sculptor, founder with her husband of the artist’s estate Brucebo on Gotland, known for her work on preservation of buildings, women’s suffrage, and the Swedish Women’s Voluntary Defence Service.

‘L’obsède’ — by Carolina M. Benedicks Bruce

  • October 28, 1867Sister Nivedita born as Margaret Noble, Irish teacher, author, social activist, and school founder. In 1895, she met Swami Vivekananda in London, then travelled to Calcutta (now Kolkata) India, where Swami Vivekananda gave her the name Nivedita (“dedicated to God”). She opened a school in the Bagbazar area of the city for girls who would otherwise receive no education. During an epidemic of plague in 1899, she nursed poor patients. She promoted Indian history, and culture, and helped Indian scientist Dr. Jagadish Chandra Bose get financial contributions and recognition for his work in plant science, and later pioneering work in radio and microwave optics. She was a prolific writer and lecturer, and a campaigner for Indian independence. When the British government initiated the partition of Bengal, she was one of the key organizers of the resistance, providing financial and logistical support, and leveraged her contacts within the British agencies to forewarn the revolutionaries, and was an advocate for Indian women’s rights. Noted for her books Kali, the Mother; The Web of Indian Life; Cradle Tales of Hinduism; and Footfalls of Indian History.


  • October 28, 1897Edith Head born, American motion-picture costume designer, who won eight Academy Awards for Best Costume Design, from The Heiress in 1949 to The Sting in 1973; created everything from Dorothy Lamour’s sarong to Audrey Hepburn’s stylish clothes for Breakfast at Tiffany’s.

Design for Audrey Hepburn in ‘Roman Holiday’ — Edith Head

  • October 28, 1901 Eileen Shanahan born, Irish poet, best known for her poem, “The Three Children.”


  • October 28, 1905Tatyana van Aardenne-Ehrenfest born, Dutch mathematician; contributed to De Bruijn sequences, the discrepancy theorem, and the BEST theorem.


  • October 28, 1927Cleo Laine born as Clementine Bullock, daughter of a Jamaican father and an English mother, English jazz singer with a vocal range of over three octaves.


  • October 28, 1929Virginia P. Held born, American social-political and feminist philosopher, whose work centers on the ethics of caregiving and the roles of women in society.


  • October 28, 1938Anne Perry born as Juliet Hulme, English author of historical detective fiction, best known for her two series, Charlotte and Thomas Pitt, and William Monk. At the age of 15, she was convicted of participating in the murder of a friend’s mother, and served five years in prison, after which she changed her name.


  • October 28, 1939Jane Alexander born, American actress, and author;  Tony Award winner, two-time Emmy winner, four-time Academy Award nominee, and Director of the National Endowment for the Arts (1993-1997).


  • October 28, 1940Susan Harris born, American television comedy writer and producer; noted for creating the several television series, including Soap and The Golden Girls. Harris was honored with the Writers’ Guild’s Paddy Chayefsky Award in 2005, and inducted into the Television Academy Hall of Fame in 2011.


  • October 28, 1942Gillian Lovegrove born, British computer scientist and academic; worked on object-oriented computing; advocate for gender balance in computer education and employment; with Wendy Hall, organized ‘Women into Computing’ conferences.


  • October 28, 1943Karlyn Patterson born, British psychologist; pioneering specialist in cognitive neuropsychology at the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge and MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge; fellow of the Royal Society and the British Academy.

University of Cambridge

  • October 28, 1946Sharon Thesen born, Canadian poet and academic; her 2000 poetry collection, A Pair of Scissors, won the Pat Lowther Award, presented by the League of Canadian Poets; in 2003, she was one of the judges for the Griffin Poetry Prize.


  • October 28, 1949 – President Truman swears in Eugenie Moore Anderson as U.S ambassador to Denmark, first American woman appointed as chief of mission at ambassador level.


  • October 28, 1950Sihem Bensedrine born, Tunisian journalist and human rights advocate; in 1980, she was a reporter for the independent journal Le Phare, when the journal stopped publication, she was a political chief at Maghreb, and then at Réalités. When Maghreb  ceased publication in 1983, she oversaw the opposition newspaper El Mawkif. In 1998, she founded the Conseil National pour les Libertés en Tunisie (CNLT – National Council for Liberties in Tunisia), but in 1999, she faced numerous police and judicial actions, including confiscation and destruction of property and a personal libel campaign in which she was portrayed as a prostitute, because of her freedom of the press and human rights activities. In 2001, after denouncing torture, corruption, and lack of judicial independence during an interview with a foreign television station, she spent 45 days in Manouba women’s prison. Bensedrine was honored by OXFAM in 2005 with their Novib/PEN Award.


  • October 28, 1950Annette Humpe born, German singer-songwriter and record producer. Co-founder of the band Ideal (1980-1983) with Ernst Ulrich Deuker and Frank Jürgen Krüger. She wrote the group’s biggest hit song, “Blaue Augen.” When the band split up, Humpe became a record producer, and co-wrote the song “Codo” which became a number one hit in Germany.  She wrote also songs and produced albums for a number of successful artists, including the first four major hit albums of the group Die Prinzen. In 2011, Humpe teamed up with German jazz singer Max Raabe, co-writing his album, Küssen kann man nicht alleine; a second collaboration, Für Frauen ist das kein Problem, followed in 2013.


  • October 28, 1955 Indra Nooyi born in India, Indian-American business executive, currently chair of PepsiCo, was its CEO (2006-2018), and CFO (2001-2006); consistently ranked by Forbes magazine as one of the 100 most powerful women in the world since 2008.


  • October 28, 1957Marian P. Bell born, British economist; Bank of England’s Monetary Policy Board (2002-2005); Royal Bank of Scotland (1982-1989 and 1991-2000); Governor of the National Institute of Economic and Social Research (2014 to present).

National Institute of Economic and Social Research

  • October 28, 1958Concha García Campoy born, Spanish radio/television journalist and program host; Televisión Española News Service (1983-1987 and 1991-1993); Cadena SER radio (1987-1991); Antena 3 Radio (1993-1999); also worked for Telecino, Punto Radio and Cuarto; in 2012, she was diagnosed with leukemia, and died in 2013.


  • October 28, 1958Mary Roebling becomes the first woman director of a stock exchange (American Stock Exchange).


  • October 28, 1967Julia Roberts born, American actress and producer; won the 2001 Oscar for Best Actress for Erin Brockovich; co-founder and head of Red Om Films, which produced Eat Pray Love and several children’s movies; traveled to Haiti in 1995 and spoke about the poverty she witnessed as part of a UNICEF fundraising campaign, and was the voice of Mother Nature on a Conservation International 2014 short film aimed at raising awareness of climate change.


  • October 28, 1971Caroline Dinenage born, British Conservative politician, Member of Parliament for Gosport since 2010. In 2014, she founded and was co-chair of the All Party Parliamentary Group for Maths and Numeracy after leading a debate on adult literacy and numeracy. She served as Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Family Support, Housing and Child Maintenance (2017-2018), where she launched an investigation which led to revisions in building rules to facilitate adding improved toilet facilities for the disabled, and more diaper changing places. As Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Women, Equalities and Early Years (2015-2017), Dinenage has campaigned for more women on corporate boards, promoted flexible working schedules, shared parental leave, and oversaw implementation of the gender pay gap reporting regulations which came into force in April 2017.


  • October 28, 2007Cristina Fernández de Kirchner becomes the first woman elected as President of Argentina.


  • October 28, 2009 Angela Merkel is sworn in for her second term as Chancellor of Germany.


  • October 28, 2019Sophie Wilmés becomes Belgium’s first woman prime minister in its 189-year history, succeeding Charles Michel, who was taking over as president of the European Council. The caretaker government she inherited was described as a ‘poisoned chalice,’ as linguistically divided parties had been struggling to form a new government. Belgium had been under a caretaker government since December 2018, when Michel’s four-party coalition collapsed as the Flemish nationalists quit in protest over a UN migration pact.


  • October 28, 2020 – The American Mathematical Society announced that will receive the 2021 Mary P. Dolciani Prize for Excellence in Research. Folsom is a Professor of Mathematics at Amherst College. She was awarded the prize for her outstanding record of research in analytic and algebraic number theory, with applications to combinatorics and Lie theory, for her work with undergraduate students, and for her service to the profession, including her work to promote success of women in mathematics.




  • October 29, 1390Witch trials in a secular court in Paris – three people are killed, two of them women accused of conspiring with the devil to create a magic potion to lure back a man who had left one of them for another woman, “afliction [sic] of illness, manipulation of affections.”


  • October 29, 1504Shin Saimdang born, Korean artist, writer, poet, and calligrapher; called Eojin Eomeoni (어진 어머니; “Wise Mother”), and honored as a model of Confucian ideals; pennames: Saim, Saimdang, Inimang and Imsajae; she was the oldest of five sisters in a family with no sons, so her maternal grandfather taught her as if she were his grandson, an education very rare for women in that time and place; her husband, Commander Yi Wonsu, appreciated her intelligence and education, which she passed on to their son, the Confucian scholar Yi L, who was also a revered politician and reformer, passing the Civil Service exam at the age of 13; Saimdang died suddenly of unknown cause at the age of 48. In 2009, she became the first woman to appear on a South Korean banknote, the 50,000 won.

     Shin Saimdang — ‘Chochungdo’

  • October 29, 1808Caterina Scarpellini born, Italian astronomer and meteorologist. She discovered a comet on April 1, 1854; in 1856, she established a meteorological station in Rome; corresponding member of the Accademia dei Georgofili in Florence, and honored by the Italian government for her work in 1872.


  • October 29, 1812Louise Granberg born, Swedish playwright, theatre director, and translator, who often used the pseudonym Carl Blink. Known for her plays Johan Fredman, and  Familjen Mohrin (The Mohrin Family). Her sister Jeanette was a rising playwright, but died at the age of 31. Louise later married Jeannette’s widower, actor Edvard Stjernström, who founded the  Swedish Theatre (Stockholm). Louise was considered a very able director, and she ran the theatre after her husband’s death in 1877. Granberg died in 1907, at the age of 95.


  • October 29, 1837Harriet Powers born in slavery in rural Georgia, African-American quilter and folk artist; she was able to read and write and often used Bible stories as inspiration for her quilts. Her work is on display at the National Museum of American History in Washington D.C and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts.


  • October 29, 1880 Anzia Yezierska born in Poland (then part of the Russian Empire), Jewish-American author and short story writer; her family emigrated to the U.S. when she was a child. After marrying in 1910, she had a daughter, but left with her child in 1914, moving to San Francisco. She was quickly overwhelmed trying to work and raise a child on her own, and gave her daughter up to her estranged husband. They were divorced in 1916, and she moved back to New York. She wrote about the struggles of Jewish and Puerto Rican immigrants living on New York’s Lower East Side, especially the problems of wives. At first, she was only able to get  her short stories published in magazines, but her novel, Salome of the Tenements, published in 1923, led to her best-known book, Bread Givers, followed by Arrogant Beggar, and All I Could Never Be. During the Depression, she worked for the Federal Writers Project of the WPA, but then fell into obscurity until 1950, when her fictionalized biography, Red Ribbon on a White Horse, revived interest in her work. She was nearly 70 years old by then, and was losing her eyesight, but continued to write short stories and book reviews until her death in 1970 at the age of 90.  


  • October 29, 1891 Fanny Brice born, American comedian and comic singer.


  • October 29, 1899Kate Seredy born in Hungary, American children’s book author-illustrator and bookstore owner; winner of a 1938 Newbery Medal and 1971 Caldecott Honor; most of her books are written in English, her second language.


  • October 29, 1908Louise Bates Ames born, child psychologist, researched and stressed normal steps in development, wrote newspaper advice column in 1960s.


  • October 29, 1930Natalie Sleeth born, American religious music composer and organist; noted for choral anthem, “Joy in the Morning.”


  • October 29, 1930Niki de Saint Phalle born, French sculptor and painter.

                               Niki de Saint Phalle — ‘Les_Baigneurs’

  • October 29, 1932Joyce Gould born, British Labour Party politician and pharmacist; member of Campaign Against Racial Discriminations (1965-1975), Secretary of the National Joint Committee of Working Women’s Organizations (1975-1985), and served in various capacities with a number of other commissions and organizations; in 1993, made a Life Peer, Baroness Gould of Potternewton, serving on House of Lords committees, involved with anti-racism, gender equity and civil liberty issues in particular.


  • October 29, 1938Ellen Johnson Sirleaf born, Liberian politician, President of Liberia (2006-2018), the first woman elected as a head of state in Africa. She was a co-recipient of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize.


  • October 29, 1947 Helen Lloyd Coonan born, Australian Liberal Party politician; Senator for New South Wales (1996-2011); the first woman in the Coalition Leadership Team as Deputy Leader of the Government in the Senate (2006-2007); served as Minister for Revenue and Assistant Treasurer (2001-2004) and Minister for Communications, Information Technology and the Arts (2004-2007).


  • October 29, 1952Marcia Fudge born, American Democratic politician; Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio’s 11th District since 2008; Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus (2013-2015); Mayor of Warrensville Heights (2000-2008).


  • October 29, 1966Mary Bucholtz born, American professor of linguistics at University of California, Santa Barbara, noted for work on sociocultural linguistics and for developing the tactics of intersubjectivity framework with Kira Hall; she is the co-author of Gender Articulated: language and the socially constructed self.


  • October 29-30, 1966First organizing conference held for the National Organization for Women; officers elected included Betty Friedan as the first president of NOW.


  • October 29, 1972 –  Gabrielle Union born, African American actress,  memoirist, and children’s author. She is known for playing Isis in the 2000 film Bring It On, and for leading roles in Deliver Us From Eva, and Think Like a Man. She was honored with an NAACP Image Award for playing the title role in Being Mary Jane, a BET TV drama series from 2013 to 2019. Union is an advocate for survivors of assault, the importance of therapy, and has spoken in favor of women’s right to abortion. She ran in the 2012 Global Race for the Cure in honor of her friend Kristen Martinez, who had died from breast cancer, and was a spokesperson for Planned Parenthood’s breast cancer initiative. She supported Barack Obama’s presidential campaign, and was appointed by him to the National Advisory Committee on Violence Against Women. She was also part of the “Greater Together” initiative during his re-election campaign. Union published her memoirs, We’re Going to Need More Wine in 2017, and You Got Anything Stronger? in 2021. Her first children’s book, Welcome to the Party, appeared in 2020.


  • October 29, 1988 – During a nationwide so-called “national day of rescue” which was aimed at closing women’s healthcare clinics, 2,000 anti-abortion protesters were arrested for blocking access to clinics. While the protests were mostly non-violent, one protester was arrested when he tried to stop a police motorcycle from entering clinic property, while other demonstrators lay down to block clinic employees’ cars as they arrived for work. In the state of New York, the Operation Rescue anti-abortion group faced a $25,000 fine for blocking access to local clinics. The protests marked a continuation of the anti-abortion campaign that resulted in about 7,000 arrests across the U.S. since the campaign began during the Democratic National Convention in July. Pro-choice counter demonstrators in California chanted: “Not the church, not the state, women will decide their fate.”


  • October 29, 2019 – In the UK, over 70 women members of parliament from across the political divide signed an open letter condemning the media’s treatment of Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, saying that the coverage displays “outdated, colonial overtones.” The letter, on House of Commons headed notepaper from the office of Labour’s Holly Lynch, was posted on the Halifax MP’s Twitter account and addressed to the Duchess of Sussex. “As women MPs of all political persuasions, we wanted to express our solidarity with you in taking a stand against the often distasteful and misleading nature of the stories printed in a number of our national newspapers concerning you, your character and your family . . . You have our assurances that we stand with you in solidarity on this. We will use the means at our disposal to ensure that our press accept your right to privacy and show respect, and that their stories reflect the truth.” The Duchess is suing the Mail on Sunday for breach of privacy after it printed extracts of her private letter to her estranged father. Prince Harry has issued legal proceedings against the owners of the Sun and the Daily Mirror over alleged phone hacking.

                 Meghan Markle — Holly Lynch

  • October 29, 2020 – The UN Security Council marked the 20 year anniversary of the historic vote that recognized for the first time the unique impact that conflicts by force of arms have on women, and the critical role they play in conflict prevention and resolution. The council unanimously adopted resolution 1325 to set a new basis for women’s leadership, gender equality, justice and accountability in all aspects of peace. Since then, nine supporting resolutions  have been passed, and over 80 countries have adopted national plans to translate these resolutions into action.   Women’s organizations and activists around the world have worked to advance women’s representation, demanding women’s participation at peace tables, in reconstruction efforts, and in implementing post conflict agreements. Women have led peaceful democratic elections and war crimes prosecutions. They have served as peacekeepers and role models and been recognized with the Nobel Peace Prize. However, progress has also been maddeningly slow and met with backlash. As of 2019, peace agreements with gender equality provisions have increased from 14 to 22 per cent since 1995, but on average, women were only 13 per cent of negotiators, 6 per cent of mediators, and 6 per cent of signatories in major peace processes between 1992 and 2019. The Security Council was briefed by Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, UN Women Executive Director; Zarqa Yaftali, Afghan Activist and Executive Director of Women and Children Legal Research Foundation; Danai Gurira, UN Women Goodwill Ambassador, and award-winning playwright and actor; and Nataliia Emelianova, Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Adviser in the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei.

UN Resolution 1325 Anniversary speakers:
               Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka — Zarqa Yaftali — Danai Gurira — Nataliia Emelianova



  • October 30, 1492 Anne d’Alençon, Lady of La Guerche born, French noblewoman who became Marquise of Montferrat at age 16 when she married William IX, Marquis of Montferrat. She gave birth to three children, and acted as Regent of the Marquisate of Montferrat for her son, Boniface, from death of her husband in 1518 to Boniface’s unexpected death in 1530. She remained involved in the government of Montferrat after her brother-in-law, John George, became the new Marquis, and she had a major say in the betrothals of her daughters Maria and Margherita. On retiring from public life, Anne d’Alençon entered the convent of Dominican Sisters of Catherine of Siena which adjoined her palazzo in Casale Monferrato. She died in October 1562, shortly before her seventieth birthday.

Anne d’Alençon, Lady of La Guerche — by Macrino d’Alba

  • October 30, 1668 Sophia Charlotte of Hanover born, the first Queen of Prussia, by marriage in 1684 to Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, who became Frederick I of Prussia in 1701. In addition to German, she spoke French, Italian and English fluently, and surrounded herself with philosophers, theologians, and musicians; her influence helped bring about the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Arcangelo Corelli dedicated his Op.5 sonatas for solo violin to her. She died of pneumonia at age 36 in 1705.  


  • October 30, 1728 Mary W. Hayley born, the curious and independent child of a prosperous distiller, who loved to read, and defied convention as she grew older by attending trials at the Old Bailey, London’s central criminal court, and traveling throughout Britain. She became an English businesswoman who parlayed the inheritance in 1753 from her much older first husband into a sizeable estate with her second husband, who had been the chief clerk of her first husband, by establishing trade relationships with the American colonies. Their firm shipped the tea which went overboard in the Boston Tea Party. When her second husband died, she ran the business on her own, and became one of the few British merchants who recouped her losses from America after the war. In 1784, she bought a frigate formerly used as a war ship, and refurbished it as a whaling and sealing vessel, which she rechristened the United States. She moved to Boston for the next eight years, running the whaling business and becoming known for her charitable donations. Returning from the venture’s inaugural voyage to the Falkland Islands with a cargo of whale oil, her ship was boarded by the British Navy in 1785, and the cargo was seized. But the British Crown was unable to prove that she owed duty because British merchants were exempt if a third of their crew were also British, so the Crown had to recompense her. In 1786, she married a Scottish merchant in Boston, but in 1792, she left him, returning to England with the stipulation that he never again appear in her presence. She retired to Bath, and died there in 1808.


  • October 30, 1741Angelica Kauffman born, Swiss-born Austrian Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome; she and Mary Moser were the only two women among the founding members of the Royal Academy in London (1768); best remembered for historical scenes and portraits.

Self-Portrait — by Angelica Kauffman 

  • October 30, 1854Julie Rivé-King born, American pianist and composer; after a European concert tour, she debuted with the New York Philharmonic in 1875. She married her manager, Frank King, in 1876, and thereafter limited her public appearances, and concentrated on composing and teaching music. Her husband persuaded her to publish his compositions under her name, and one of her publishers also used her name on his compositions, causing confusion, but most of her compositions are for the piano. Noted for “Gems of Scotland” and “March of the Goblins,” which have been confirmed as her work.


  • October 30, 1857Gertrude Horn Atherton born, American author of over 60 stories, novels, and articles, many set in her home state of California. Her story Black Oxen was made into a silent film. Her articles for magazines and newspapers featured feminism, politics, and war. Her first published work of fiction in 1882 was a serial, The Randolphs of Redwood: A Romance, in a San Francisco newspaper under the pen name ‘Asmodeus.’  When she told her family that she was the author, she was ostracized, and left for New York, then London, before returning to California. Her first novel, What Dreams May Come, was published in 1888 under the pseudonym Frank Lin. She was a champion of the rights of authors as well as the rights of women.


  • October 30, 1864Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge born, pianist, endowed first pension fund for Chicago Symphony Orchestra (1916), funded Lucy Sprague Mitchell’s Bureau of Educational Experiments, established a foundation at the Library of Congress (1925) that provided for the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge Auditorium.


  • October 30, 1877Irma Rombauer born, author of The Joy of Cooking, which is still in print in revised editions. Since 1936, over 18 million copies have been sold.


  • October 30, 1877Luisa Spagnoli born, Italian chocolatier and fashion designer; co-founder, with Giovanni Buitoni, of the Perugina chocolate factory in 1877. In 1928, she was the first person to introduce angora yarn for knitwear, with the trademark l’Angora Spagnoli, at that year’s Fiera di Milano (Milano Fair), where she showcased shawls and other fashionable clothing. But the new company was run by her son, because she was diagnosed with cancer, and died in 1935.  


  • October 30, 1881Elizabeth Madox Roberts born, American poet and author; best known for her novel, The Time of Man, which was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1926.  Her poetry collection, Under the Tree, won the Fiske Prize.  


  • October 30, 1886Zoë Akins born, American playwright, author, screenwriter, and poet; Déclassée, and The Greeks Had a Word For It, which became the 1953 hit movie How to Marry a Millionaire.


  • October 30, 1896Ruth Gordon born, actor and screenwriter. She made her Broadway debut as one of the Lost Boys in a revival of Peter Pan. With her husband, Garson Kanin, she wrote screenplays for Hepburn and Tracy movies. Starred as Dolly Levi in The Matchmaker (1954), and memorably in the off-beat film Harold and Maude in 1971 when she was in her 70s. She died after a stroke at the age of 88 in 1985. She was posthumously nominated for a Saturn Best Supporting Actress Award for her performance in the film Maxie, which was released a month before she died.


  • October 30, 1917Minni Nurme born, Estonian author, poet, and translator; during WWII, she lived behind Soviet lines; after the war, she moved to Tallinn, Estonia’s capital. She wrote two novels, several collections of short stories, and eleven collections of poetry, in spite of harassment by Stalinist authorities.


  • October 30, 1923Gloria Oden born, American poet and academic, her poetry collection Resurrections, a nominee for the 1979 Pulitzer Prize for poetry, was a response to the unsolved murders of her mother and sister.


  • October 30, 1932Reina Torres de Araúz born, Panamanian anthropologist and ethnographer; a tireless defender of Panama’s indigenous cultural heritage.


  • October 30, 1939Grace Slick born, American singer-songwriter with Jefferson Airplane. After retiring from the music business, she began painting, mainly animals at first, and then portraits of rock-n-roll musicians she knew. Her autobiography, Somebody to Love? A Rock and Roll Memoir, was published in 1998 — in it, Slick discusses her struggles with drugs and alcoholism.


  • October 30, 1944Anne Frank and her sister Margot are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.


  • October 30, 1944 Martha Graham’s ballet Appalachian Spring, with music by Aaron Copland,  premieres at the Library of Congress.

  • October 30, 1946Andrea Mitchell born, American television journalist, anchor, and commentator.


  • October 30, 1955Heidi Heitkamp born, American politician, U.S. Senator for North Dakota (2013-2019); first woman elected to the U.S. senate from North Dakota; Attorney General of North Dakota (1992-2000).


  • October 30, 1963Rebecca Ann Heineman born William S. Heineman, American video game programmer; founding member of Interplay Productions and Logicware, now CEO of Olde Skuul.


  • October 30, 1972 Jessica Hynes born, English scriptwriter and actress; co-creator, writer and star of the British sitcom Spaced, for which she won a BAFTA award; creator of the series Up the Women; supporter of the Women’s Equality Party.


  • October 30, 1978 Stephanie Izard born, considered one of America’s top chefs; co-owner and executive chef of three award-winning Chicago restaurants: Girl and the Goat, Little Goat, and Duck Duck Goat.


  • October 30, 2005 – Civil rights pioneer Rosa Parks becomes the first woman to be laid in honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda. (Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg is the first woman to lie in state, because of her position as part of the US. government.)


  • October 30, 2019 – Human Rights Watch issued a report on the bride trafficking problem in China. The country’s one-child policy, in force from 1979 to 2015, and the widespread preference for a son rather than a daughter,  created a huge gender imbalance.  There are now over 3o million more Chinese men than Chinese women. The Chinese government has ignored or denied the problem for many years, but the brutal business of selling women and girls from neighboring countries has grown too big to ignore. Human Rights Watch investigated bride trafficking in northern Myanmar, where women and girls, many from impoverished communities of ethnic or religious minorities, are  tricked by brokers who promise them well-paid jobs across the border in China. But when they arrive in China, they are sold to Chinese families for between $3,000 and $13,000. Once purchased they are prisoners, often pressured to produce babies as quickly as possible. Similar stories have been documented by journalists and researchers in Cambodia, North Korea, Pakistan, and Vietnam. All of the affected countries have complicated relationships and deep power imbalances with China. The consequence has been that their own governments often show little concern about the fate of women and girls trafficked to China. Pakistani authorities have begun to pay attention to the problem, and the Chinese government seems to have worked with Pakistani authorities, helping them to identify and track down suspected traffickers on the Pakistani-Chinese border. The Ministry of Public Security, China’s national police, reported that in 2018 they had rescued 1,100 Southeast Asian female trafficking victims, and arrested 1,322 suspects, including 262 foreigners. But the tight grip of the Chinese government on the media and the internet means much of the Chinese public are unaware of bride trafficking. Speaking critically of the government has often resulted in police harassment and arrest. Combined with a continuing crackdown on women’s rights activists and civil society groups, it has become increasingly difficult for them to raise awareness and assist victims.  


  • October 30, 2020 – Amidst huge protests across the country, hospitals in Poland began turning away women seeking abortions, even though the constitutional tribunal ruling which instituted a ban on abortions because of severe fetal defects had not yet taken effect. Legal abortions in Poland were already rare, and 97% of the 1,110 legal Polish abortions in 2019 were for severe fetal defects. The Polish Federation for Women and Family Planning received dozens of calls from distressed women, including from those turned away from clinics despite having pre-existing appointments on the grounds of fetal abnormalities. “Most are too distraught to even speak to me,” said the federation’s executive director, Krystyna Kacpura. “They start talking and break down in tears. These women need psychological help, their mental health is in very poor shape.” The FWFP appealed to the mayor of Warsaw to urge hospitals to reverse their polices, and a few hospitals in the city did extend availability until the date that the ban will take effect. The situation is being exacerbated by rising cases of Covid-19 in Poland, which has already caused some abortion clinics  to close. On October 28, the health ministry had reported a record 21,629 new infections out of a population of 38 million people. In 2016, Jarosław Kaczyński, leader of PiS, the nation’s ruling party, said: “We will strive to ensure that even in pregnancies which are very difficult, when a child is sure to die, strongly deformed, women end up giving birth so that the child can be baptised, buried and have a name.”




  • October 31, 802Irene Saratapechaina of Athens, Empress regnant of the Byzantine Empire since 797, is deposed by the patricians. (She was not a nice person!) Irene was previously co-regent (792-797) with her son, until she took sole power. She cruelly maimed her son, then kept him prisoner until he died. Pope Leo III proclaimed Charlemagne to be Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire on Christmas Day of 800 under the pretext that a woman could not rule, declaring the throne of the empire was actually vacant. After being overthrown, Irene was exiled to the island of Lesbos, where she was forced to support herself by spinning wool until her death in 803.  


  • October 31, 1445Hedwig of Saxony born, Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg (1458-1511). The chapter of the Quedlinburg Abbey elected the 12-year-old Hedwig as successor to Princess-Abbess Anna I. Quedlinburg Abbey was a house of secular canonesses, and ruled the principality of Quedlinburg, a self-governing Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire with the right to vote in the Imperial Diet. Pope Calixtus III confirmed the election, but decreed that the Princess-Abbess should reign under the guardianship of her father and the canonesses of Quedlinburg until the age of 20. In 1465, she was invested with regalia by her maternal uncle, Emperor Frederick III, and started governing the abbey-principality on her own. In 1460, the city of Quedlinburg joined the Hanseatic League, attempting to gain independence from her and become a free imperial city. Gebhard von Hoym, Bishop of Halberstadt, aided the rebellion. The Bishop invaded the abbey-principality and tried to evict Hedwig. But as princess-abbess, Hedwig was subject only to the Pope and the Emperor; she forced the Bishop to renounce his claim with the help of her brothers, Elector Ernest and Duke Albert III of Saxony. Hedwig subdued the rebels, then forced the town to leave the Hanseatic League, strengthening her authority. Hedwig died in the abbey at age 65 in June of 1511.

     Hedwig of Saxony, Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg Abbey

  • October 31, 1542Henriette de La Marck of Cleves born, French courtier who became suo jure (in her own right) Countess of Rethel in 1654 after her brother James died without an heir. Henriette was left with enormous debts from her late father and brothers, but managed her lands so well, she brought the financial situation back in order. Her later profits were so great that she eventually became one of the chief creditors of France’s unstable state during the French Wars of Religion (1562-1598). She was lady-in-waiting to Catherine de’ Medici, Queen consort of France, until her marriage at age 22 in 1565 to Louis I of Gonzaga-Nevers, which made her Princess of Mantua. She bore four children, and died in 1601 at the age of 58.


  • October 31, 1711 – Laura Bassi born, Italian philosopher, physicist, and academic; received a doctoral degree from the University of Bologna in 1732, the second degree recorded as given to a woman by a university (Elena Cornaro Pisopia was the first, in 1678); first woman to earn a professorship in physics at a university in Europe; also recognized as the first woman in the world to become a university chair in a scientific field of studies. Bassi was one of the first women to lecture in public, but initially, the university restricted her to one lecture per year, so she conducted private lessons, and performed experiments at home; gradually called upon to attend most of the events which the University opened to the public, at the Palazzo Pubblico, attended by major political and religious figures as well as university faculty and students. These public appearances enabled her to petition for pay increases, which she used to buy her advanced equipment. She conducted experiments with electricity with her husband, which attracted other talented scientific minds to Bologna, and helped spread the study of Newtonian mechanics throughout Italy. She was most interested in Newtonian physics and in Franklinian electricity, fields of study that were not part of the regular curriculum. In her lifetime, she was the author of 28 papers, the majority of these on physics and hydraulics, although she did not publish any books, and only four of her papers were published. She also carried on an extensive correspondence with many outstanding scientists of her day in France and England. When the chair of the experimental physics department died suddenly, she was appointed to replace him, serving for the two years until her death. Bassi made invaluable contributions to the field of science while also helping to spread the field of Newtonianism through Italy.


  • October 31, 1849Marie Louise Andrews born, American journalist, short story writer, and poet; editor at the Indianapolis Herald; co-founder of the Western Association of Writers (1885).


  • October 31, 1851Louise of Sweden born. Her brother Carl died at age three, leaving her as the only surviving child of King Charles XV of Sweden. She was not eligible for the crown, so her uncle, who had several sons, became heir to the throne. She was doted on by her parents, and received a better-than-average education, which included swimming lessons from Nancy Edberg, a pioneer in swimming for women, which helped make swimming more acceptable for women. Her father arranged for her to meet Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark to see if she liked him. It would be a politically desirable marriage, but he didn’t want her to marry someone she disliked. She agreed to the marriage, and began learning Danish, as well as the customs, culture, and history of Denmark. They were married in 1869, and she became Crown Princess of Denmark (1869-1906), and later Queen Consort (1906-1912). She was popular with the people of Denmark, but life at court was very difficult because of her domineering mother-in-law, who didn’t approve of Louise’s frank and less formal nature, or even her choice of clothes. Her husband’s infidelity distressed her, and also hurt his public image. She found solace in religion, studied Greek and the Bible, as well as founding several charitable organizations. When she became Queen in 1906, she expanded her charity projects and her interest in art and literature, was dutifully correct on ceremonial occasions, but didn’t enjoy them, and spent much time with her children. She became the last widow of a Danish monarch to use the title Queen Dowager, and died at age 74 in 1926 at Egelund Castle, where she was living in retirement.


  • October 31, 1860Juliette Gordon Low born, founder and first president of the Girl Scouts U.S.A.


  • October 31, 1874Mary Swartz Rose born, scientist and educator; earned her Ph.D. in 1909 from Yale in physiological chemistry.


  • October 31, 1876Natalie Clifford Barney born, American playwright, novelist, and poet; lived openly as a lesbian in Paris for 60 years; formed a “Women’s Academy” (L’Académie des Femmes), a feminist and pacifist, and advocate for free love; her weekly Salon brought together expat writers and artists, with their French counterparts, from  modernists to members of the French Academy.


  • October 31, 1880 Julia Mood Peterkin born in South Carolina, American author, won the 1929 Pulitzer Prize for Literature for her novel Scarlet Sister Mary; her books included depictions of the lives of the Gullah people of the Low Country; Scarlet Sister Mary was banned by the Gaffney library in South Carolina, but The Gaffney Ledger published the complete book in serial form.


  • October 31, 1883Marie Laurencin born, French Cubist painter and printmaker associated with La Section d’Or, a Cubist-Orphist collective of artists, poets and critics, named for the Salon de la Section d’Or, the most important public showing of Cubist work before WWI, in 1912 in Paris.

Self-Portrait — by Marie Laurencin

  • October 31, 1896Ethel Waters born, African American singer and actress, recorded more than 250 sides after debut (1921), unsurpassed vocalist and stylist with perfect pitch. As an actress, she is best known for her performance in Member of the Wedding, both on Broadway, and in the 1952 film version.

Ethel Waters in ‘Member of the Wedding’

  • October 31, 1897Constance Savery born, British author of fifty novels and children’s books, as well as articles and short stories; noted for Enemy Brothers and Emeralds for the King.


  • October 31, 1902 Julia Lee born, African-American blues singer-songwriter; noted the sexual innuendo in her “songs my mother taught me not to sing,” such as “Snatch and Grab It” which sold over 500,000 copies.


  • October 31, 1908Muriel Duckworth born, Canadian pacifist, feminist, and community activist who maintained that war is a major obstacle to social justice, because of the violence it inflicts on women and children, and the money spent on armaments which perpetuates poverty while reinforcing the power of the elite; founding member of Nova Scotia Voice of Women for Peace, the regional branch of Voice of Women; she was president of VOW (1967-1971) and led protests against the Canadian government’s quiet support for the U.S.-led Vietnam War. She was the first woman in Halifax to run for a seat in the Nova Scotia legislature, although she did not win. She led community campaigns for better housing, education, social assistance, and municipal planning. In 1991, she was honored with the Pearson Medal of Peace.


  • October 31, 1915Jane Jarvis born, American jazz pianist, composer, and music industry executive, as corporate vice president at Muzak (1962?-1978). In the 1960s, she played the ballpark organ for the Mets. She left corporate work to return to playing jazz piano, and has over 300 compositions to her credit with ASCAP. She lived to be 94 years old.


  • October 31, 1922Barbara Bel Geddes born, American stage, screen, and television actress. She was also an artist, and a children’s author. In 1955, she was the original Maggie in the first Broadway production of the Tennessee Williams play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. She is also noted for her roles in the films I Remember Mama and Vertigo. But most audiences now remember her as “Miss Ellie” Ewing Farlow in the TV series Dallas (1978-1984 and 1985-1990). She retired from acting in 1990, and spent her time painting, developing a successful line of greeting cards, and writing two children’s books, I Like to Be Me and So Do I. A long-time heavy smoker, Bel Geddes died of lung cancer in 2005.


  • October 31, 1941Sally Kirkland born, American stage, screen, and television actress, painter, and acting teacher, whose students have included Sandra Bullock, Barbra Streisand, and Liza Minnelli. She was nominated for a Best Actress Oscar for the 1987 film Anna, and did win the Golden Globe for Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture Drama for Anna. In 2005, she was honored with a Lifetime Achievement Award by La Femme International Film Festival.


  • October 31, 1949Allison Wolf born, British economist and author; the Sir Roy Griffiths Professor of Public Sector Management at King’s College London. She is Director of the International Centre for University Policy Research, King’s Policy Institute; and Director of the university’s MSc programme in Public Sector Policy and Management;  Does Education Matter? Myths about Education and Economic Growth, and The XX Factor.


  • October 31, 1950 – Dame Zaha Hadid born in Iraq, British-Iraqi architect, described as the “Queen of the curve” for her fluid design style. Her major projects include the London Aquatics Centre for the 2012 Olympics, the Broad Art Museum in the US, the MAXXI Museum in Rome, and the Guangzhou Opera House in China. In 2004, Hadid was the first woman to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize. She was also honored with the UK’s most prestigious  architectural award, the Stirling Prize, in 2010 and 2011. In February 2016, she became the first woman awarded the Royal Gold Medal from the Royal Institute of British Architects. She died age 65 in March, 2016, of a heart attack, while being treated for bronchitis in a Miami, Florida hospital.


  • October 31, 1950Jane Pauley born, American television journalist and  anchor of CBS Sunday Morning since 2016; Dateline co-anchor (1992-2003); Today show co-host (1976-1989).


  • October 31, 1955 Susan Orlean born, American journalist; since 1992, staff writer for The New Yorker; author of The Orchid Thief. She also published The Bullfighter Checks Her Makeup, and My Kind of Place, which were collections of her stories that had previously appeared in magazines.


  • October 31, 1956 Annie Finch born, central figure in contemporary American poetry, has published over eighteen books, which include her own poetry, literary essays, and criticism, as well as several anthologies which she edited. Finch’s mother, Margaret Rockwell Finch, was also a poet.


  • October 31, 1962 – Anna Geifman born, American historian and author; focused on political extremism, terrorism, and the history of the Russian revolutionary movements; Thou Shalt Kill: Revolutionary Terrorism in Russia, 1894-1917 and Entangled in Terror: The Azef Affair and the Russian Revolution.


  • October 31, 1962Mari Jungstedt born, Swedish journalist on public radio and television; crime fiction author; The Killer’s Art and The Dead of Summer.


  • October 31, 1980 Alondra de la Parra born in New York City, Mexican American conductor. Her family moved to Mexico City when she was three years old, where she studied piano, cello, and composition. She returned to New York at age 19 to study piano and conducting at the Manhattan School of Music, and served as an apprentice conductor with the New Amsterdam Symphony Orchestra. In 2003, at the behest of the Mexican Consulate, she founded the Mexican-American Orchestra for a concert of Mexican music at the Mexico Now Festival. In 2004, the orchestra was renamed the Philharmonic Orchestra of the Americas (POA), and later toured in Mexico. She was appointed as an official Cultural Ambassador of Mexico. The orchestra disbanded in 2011 because of financial difficulties. De la Parra became the artistic director of the Orquesta Filarmónica de Jalisco (2012-2013). She was Music Director of the Queensland Symphony Orchestra (2017-2019), the first woman principal conductor of a major Australian symphony orchestra.

  • October 31, 1984 – Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassinated by two Sikh security guards. Riots break out in New Delhi and other cities and nearly 10,000 Sikhs are killed.


  • October 31, 1996 – The South African National Assembly passes the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act, which allows women, including minors, to terminate pregnancies on request within the first 12 weeks, and under specified circumstances from the 13th week to through the 20th week, and under very limited circumstances beyond that point.


  • October 31, 2019 – The draft of the new constitution for Sudan sets a minimum 40% quota for women in the future Transitional Legislative Council. The news comes just days after Sudan’s sovereign council appointed Nemat Abdullah Mohamed Khair as the nation’s first woman chief justice. Khair is the first woman chief justice in the Arab world, and the fifth in Africa. Sudanese citizens have largely embraced the appointment and see it as a major step forward for Sudanese women, reflecting women’s leading role in the protests that toppled President Omar al-Bashir. The appointment demonstrates an effort by the transitional government to increase women’s representation in leadership roles. Four women have been appointed to cabinet positions in the new government, including the country’s first woman minister of foreign affairs, Asma Mohamed Abdalla.

  Asma Mohamed Abdalla and Nemat Abdullah Khair

  • October 31, 2020 In New Zealand, the Green Party accepted Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern’s offer of a stake in governing, through a “cooperation agreement” which gives the Greens two ministries, and a framework for working together on some shared policy priorities. Ardern’s Labour party won an outright majority which entitled the party to govern alone, but Ardern said the agreement allows the government to benefit from the expertise of Green Party members on the environment, climate change, and child wellbeing. James Shaw, Green Party co-leader with Marama Davidson, will continue as Climate Change Minister and Associate Environment Minister. Marama Davidson will be appointed to the new position of Minister for the Prevention of Family and Sexual Violence. Davidson is a survivor of sexual assault. In 2015 she was thrown out of parliament for revealing she was the victim of sexual violence as a child, and has since become an activist for victims of abuse. A member of the Maori community, she is also an advocate for indigenous rights. “We showed in the last government we can work well with the Green party,” Ardern said. “On environmental and wellbeing issues there is much we agree on that is good for New Zealand and I want to draw on our shared goals and expertise to keep moving forward with that work.”

                    Jacinda Ardern —  Marama Davidson —  James Shaw








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